Hi, do you have concerns about pregnancy ?
Don´t worry!  You are not alone.
On this website,  you´ll find some useful information.

What is
Perinatal Depression?

Go  

Why do pregnant women
feel depressed?

Go  

What is the outcome without treatment?

Go  

Do you want to know if you have any signs or symptoms of depression during pregnancy?

Go  

Only a trained health care or mental health professional can tell you whether you have Perinatal Depression. This quiz can help you find out whether you have any depression symptoms.

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline and Website
phone 800-273-TALK (8255)
info Call for yourself or someone you care about; free and confidential counseling in a crisis; available 24/7/365
Postpartum Support International
phone 800-944-4773(4PPD)
info Provide information on treatment, support groups and resources in the United States and in more than 36 other countries
Postpartum Education for Parents
phone (805)-564-3888
info A free 24-hour service is available for one-on-one support, from basic infant care to the baby blues and other perinatal topics.
National Mental Health Association
phone 800-969-6642
info For information on Perinatal Depression, including a locator to find a mental health center or provider in your area.
National Women´s Health Information Center
phone 800-994-9662
info Provide information about depression and pregnancy are available on the Web site.
National Institute of Mental Health
phone 866-615-6464
info The Web site has links to research studies and findings on depression.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)
phone 800-673-8444/ 202-638-5577
info Information and Resources for you and your health care provider.

Self-Care

Go  

Spouse or friends’support

Go  

Treatments

Go  

The Purpose

This website introduces information about depression during pregnancy; users can complete a Perinatal Depression screen test on this website. The website's aim is to encourage pregnant women and their family members to read useful medical information by making complex information more simple and engaging, and also enjoy the interactive quiz experience.


The Content

This site content provides information such as text, graphics, images for educational purposes only. If you have any concerns about your own health or the health of your children, you should always consult with a physician or other healthcare professionals.


The References:

1. Donna E, Stewart, M.D. "Depression during Pregnancy." The New England Journal of Medicine (2011): 1605-606. Print.

2. Veronica O´Keane, Michael S Marsh. "Depression during Pregnancy." BMJ(12 MAY 2007 ) Volume 334 : 1003-1005. Print.

3. Cox, J.L., Holden, J.M., and Sagovsky, R. 1987. Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry 150:782-786.

4. Depression During & After Pregnancy: A Resource for Women, Their Families, & Friends,UU.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health Resources & Services Administration Department of Health and Human Services Health Resources and Services Administration.

5. Misri, Shaila Kulkarni. Pregnancy Blues. New York: Delta, 2005. Print.


About Project

This is the thesis project of Jiaying Li for the Master of Fine Arts degree at Rochester Institute of Technology.

Special thanks to Professor Chris Jackson, Professor Marla Schweppe, Professor Patricia Newcomb and Professor Lorrie Frear.

I really appreciate their kindness advices for developing this website.I learned a lot from this project.

Also thanks to my parents and my friends, Yuqi Xiao, Qianwen Liu, Qian Li, Jiyue Wang always support me!

Contact

jennyandjiaying@gmail.com

What is Perinatal Depression?


Many mothers are sad, afraid or anxious during pregnancy. Many women cannot take care for themselves, their infant, or their families. Severely depressed women have the thought of harming themselves, and/or their infants.

Depression during pregnancy is common

According to surveys, 12.7% of pregnant women reported depression during pregnancy. It is important to know that Perinatal Depression isn´t womens´ fault, and can be treated.

Why do pregnant woman
feel depressed?


These psychological and biological symptoms are risk factors of depression.



Some possible psychological causes of Depression

1.  Personal experience of maltreatment
     as a child
6.  Experiencing Domestic violence currently
     or in the past
2.  Having more than three children 7.  Cigarette smoking
3.  Low Income 8.  Age younger than 20 or older than 35
4.  Insufficient social support 9.  Being a single mom
5.  Major life event such as losing a parent

Biological Reasons

1.   Hormone changes affect the area of the
      brain that is responsible for
      mood regulation.
3.   Biological history of depression
      in a family
2.   Having an episode of depression makes
      a person more likely to have depression
      during pregnancy
4.  In Bipolar Disorder, people experience      abnormally elevated mood states
     that interfere with the functions of
     ordinary life

What is the outcome
without treatment?


The outcome of Perinatal Deprdession
can be very serious for both the mother
and the baby, and it also may hurt
other family members.
It is very important to help recognize depression and look for help.

These are symptoms which indicate depression during pregnancy:

1.  Difficulty performing usual activities 6.  Failure to seek prenatal care
2.  Difficulties with the relationship
     with the woman's partner
7.  The use of tobacco, alcohol, 
     and harmful substances
3.  Self-harm or suicide attempt 8.  Difficulties with infant care
4.  Difficulties with mother-child attachment 9.  Difficulties with care of the other children
5.  Inadequate diet

Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale


The 10-question Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has proven to be an effective screening tool for identifying pregnant woman at risk for perinatal depression.

The EPDS score is not intended to provide a diagnosis.If you have any concerns about your own health or the health of your children, you should always consult with a physician or other healthcare professionals.

Women with Perinatal Depression may find useful information on the Organizations Page. You are not alone.



Source: Cox, J.L., Holden, J.M., and Sagovsky, R. 1987. Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry 150:782-786 .



Instruction for using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale:

1. The mother is asked to check the response that comes closest to how she has been feeling in the previous 7 days.

2. All the items must be completed.

3. Care should be taken to avoid the possibility of the mother discussing her answers with others. (Answers come from the mother or pregnant woman.)

4. The mother should complete the scale herself, unless she has limited English or has difficulty with reading.


In the past 7 days:
1. I have been able to laugh and see the funny side of things

2. I have looked forward with enjoyment to things

3. I have blamed myself unnecessarily when things went wrong

4. I have been anxious or worried for no good reason

5. I have felt scared or panicky for no good reason

6. Things have been getting on top of me

7. I have been so unhappy that I have had difficulty sleeping

8. I have felt sad or miserable

9. I have been so unhappy that I have been crying

10. The thought of harming myself has occurred to me

Your score is >=10

Based on your answer, you may have the symptoms of depression. You may benefit from consulting your doctor or a medical professional. You are not alone.
If you are having thoughts of harming yourself or others, contact a medical professional or suicide prevention hotline. You may find useful information on the Organizations Page. You are not alone.

Your score is <10

Based on your answer, you may not have the symptoms of depression. You may find useful information on the Care Page

How do women deal with Perinatal Depression?


Don´t worry! Thousands of depressed women are treated successfully. Self-care is always an important aspect for women's well being.
New mothers often concern about meeting her baby's needs, but forget to take care of themselves. Things a woman can do herself with may help:

Rely on Family and Friends

Family and friends can help you in many ways, such as cleaning the house. When you have some problems or bad feelings, talk openly with your family and friends. They will give you important support when you need.

Talk to a Health Care Professional

When you feel something is wrong, you may ask your health care professional who is knowledgeable about Perinatal Depression. He/she can provide good suggestions for your health.

Join a Support Group

You can ask your Health care professional to find a support group. You may feel better when you talk to others who have the same situation with you.

Focus on Wellness

1.  A combination of appropriate exercise and
a healthy diet can make you feel good.
4.  Go on walks with your friends or family members in the neighborhood.
2.  Eat a variety of food from all nutrition groups, including three kinds of vegetables and two servings of fruit every day. 5.  Choose healthy snacks, such as yogurt, fruits, non-fat milk, and nuts.
3.  Avoid alcohol use 6. Try a new activity. (check with your provider before beginning a strange very new activity)

Take Medications after Talking to Your Health Care Provider

If you need to take some medications, you should talk to your health care provider about this medication. It is beneficial for you to know information about the medications and treatment.

As a husband or partner

  • Encourage her to find help, and continue with your work and outside relationships.
  • Support and encourage her. Listen to her concerns. Help her to focus on herself.
  • Use kind words.

As a friends or family Member

  • Ask the mother whether she needs help, such as cleaning the house, doing shopping.
  • Always support her.
  • Understand that the father may feel stressed about being a new father.

What are treatments which might help?


There are many options available to depressed pregnant women. After consultation with her primary care physician, a woman chooses a treatment plan which fits her best.

The treatments include:

  • Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
  • Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
  • Psychodynamic Therapy
  • Group Therapy
  • Marital/Family therapy
  • Biological Support, including:
    • Medications
    • Light Therapy

Important

This site provides information for educational purposes only.
You can find the more detail on the information sources page.
If you have any concerns about your own health or the health of your children, you should always consult with a physician or other healthcare professionals.

Self-care Spouse or friends´support Treatments
What is Perinatal Depression? Why do pregnant woman feel depressed? What is the outcome
without treatment?
Introduction
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
  • Q7
  • Q8
  • Q9
  • Q10